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What is Video Proctoring: The 3 Types

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06 February, 2023

Video proctoring can be a highly-misunderstood concept—as a number of people perceive it as unnecessary and, sometimes, way too probing. And understandably so.

However, video proctoring can be most beneficial for organizations that need to engage in remote proctoring—a concept that picked momentum for organizations during COVID-19.

However, today, video proctoring is increasingly being used by enterprises and startups to hire job-fit candidates. There are different types and variations of video proctoring available.

This intuitive, video-powered technology can help:

  • Hire the right candidate based on real-time video proctoring reports generated during the assessment
  • Improve future decision-making
  • Assist companies in preventing instances of cheating for skills assessment 
  • Ensure there's no unfair practice by candidates and only the desired candidates appear for assessments

Remote proctoring has gained momentum due to its ease of use, scalability, and ability to provide a seamless test experience for candidates.

In fact, remote proctoring can accelerate the hiring process for managers if done right. It can further offer:

  • Viewing screen feeds of candidates during the test 
  • Accessing important proctoring information by way of real-time reports with indications of the number of violations
  • Viewing 'Red time stamps,' which indicate the exact instances of cheating
  • Analyzing candidate image violations that are captured every 20 to 40 seconds

The learning: Video proctoring can elevate recruiters' ability to drive more informed, evidence-based hiring decisions. If hiring managers want access to candidate-first smart insights and real-time skills analytics, video proctoring is for them.

In this comprehensive guide, we have covered everything talent professionals need to know about video proctoring and the various types. Let's get going.

What is Video Proctoring? (Or Virtual Proctoring)

video proctoring iMochaImage Source

Video proctoring is a type of automated proctoring technique that leverages a webcam to:

  • Monitor and record candidates present on the screen during a proctored skills assessment test
  • Verify the candidate's ID and ensure there's no candidate impersonation by looking at a video feed of the surroundings
  • Scan the room to ensure no one else and no other resource is present, which can lead to opportunities for cheating

Recruiters can conduct the entire proctoring session by either:

  • Streaming it live, which is available in real-time
  • Or recording it using a webcam, which is stored on the cloud

The idea is to examine any suspicious activity during the skills assessment test. Note that only authorized people can view the recorded version and assess the candidate's job readiness.


Prevent any unethical practices using AI-powered proctoring solutions offered by iMocha


How Does Video Proctoring Work?

Wondering how smart video proctoring works? Irrespective of the type of video proctoring recruiters go for, they all work the same.

Video proctoring technology uses a constellation of sophisticated tools, such as webcams, computers, microphones, etc., to deliver a seamless proctoring experience for the proctor and the candidate. Recruiters can assess candidates across the globe.

The proctoring software comes power-packed with useful features, which are assessed using a webcam. These include:

  • Identity verification
  • Face recognition
  • Voice recognition
  • Face logging
  • Browser screen locking
  • Candidate authentication

....and more.

The proctoring tool can also:

  • Do a room scan and flag suspicious candidate activity
  • Record the test and allow the proctor to view it in real time or later
  • Provide warning alerts on the candidates’ screen
  • Retain the assessment's integrity and prevent cheating

Here's a step-by-step lowdown of how video proctoring works in general:

Step 1: The proctoring software will start the skills assessment test by:

  • Monitoring the computer’s desktop to identify the candidate using the webcam
  • Scan the room using an audio and video feed to identify the candidate and also look for additional resources or people in the room

Step 2: Once the room scan is complete, the candidate takes a picture of themselves. The tool, which comes with an in-built facial recognition functionality, will compare the image taken with a specific identification metric. This helps successfully verify a candidate for online testing.

Note: There's no fear of privacy from the candidate's perspective as the tool does not store any sensitive data, such as the person’s face, name, contact, etc., in a public or private database.

Step 3: The candidate data is sent to a proctoring service so that it can be viewed in real-time or recorded for viewing later on.

In case you wish to know, here's a handy article on how to enable iMocha's video proctoring functionality.


Webcam Proctored Test:

Today, there's a dynamic shift toward embracing webcam-proctored tests for enterprises.

The extensive use of mobile phones, online tests using the web, and other digital technologies is pushing this fundamental change.

A webcam proctored test/assessment includes a proctor who:

  • Oversees a skills assessment test and monitors the candidates online using:
    • A webcam
    • A microphone-compatible computer
    • High-speed, uninterrupted internet connection
  • Uses a suite of advanced anti-cheating mechanisms to prevent instances of unwarranted activity during a web-proctored test

Organizations that wish to employ talent remotely can greatly benefit from this secure and results-driven technology.

Learn more about how iMocha's webcam proctoring works



Technical assessments? Check! One-way video interviews? Check! Live Coding Interview? Check! Whiteboard assessments? Check! Custom assessments for your open job roles? Check! iMocha offers all!



What are the Main Types of Video Proctoring Options? 

Contrary to popular opinion, video proctoring is not a concept that can be executed in one way. Today, there are three different types of video proctoring options organizations can leverage to their advantage:

Live Online Proctoring

Record and Review Proctoring

Automated  Proctoring

Certified proctors:

  • Supervise the assessment in real time online using an audio and video feed
  • Monitor the test-takers' background and desktop to rule out any kind of cheating behavior


A video proctoring solution:

  • Records the test for the entire duration
  • Once the test is complete, a certified proctor can play back the recorded video and confirm for reliability and credibility



A video proctoring solution is solely responsible for:

  • Recording the test
  • Picking up possible instances of cheating
  • Scanning the room and identifying the test-taker

Pro tip: The type of video proctoring hiring managers choose will depend on what they want to achieve in terms of talent quality, how to conduct the test, resources available to take the assessment, and more.

See how iMocha offers multiple proctoring options to prevent cheating and fraud


Video Proctoring Type 1: Live Online Proctoring

A. What is Live Proctoring?

Live proctoring is similar to invigilating during an online assessment setting. The candidate will need to share their screen, audio, and video for live proctoring to take place.

Here, an experienced online proctor:

  • Monitors multiple candidates remotely using real-time audio and video feeds from start to finish
  • Ensures test integrity
  • Assesses the candidate's genuine skills, knowledge, and expertise

The biggest benefit: Live online proctoring is a secure and credible test-taking process.


B. How Live Online Proctoring Works

Here's a step-by-step lowdown of how live proctoring works: 

Step 1: A human proctor will monitor the candidate in real time. 

Step 2: If a candidate asks for assistance or is suspected of cheating, the proctor will be alerted.

Step 3: The live proctor will oversee the entire test without using any kind of video conferencing tools. They can connect with the candidate using the chat, audio, and video functionalities and share their screen to guide the candidate easily.

Step 4: Once the test is complete, the proctor can also re-watch the recording of the test and analyze the candidate's reports for a detailed analysis of the violations as well as the credibility score.


C. Two Types of Live Proctoring Solutions: Live Authentication + Audit and Live Proctoring Features 

Whether hiring managers want to conduct pre-employment tests or a skills assessment test, they need to ensure test integrity. This is where the Live Authentication + Audit and the Live Proctoring features come in handy.

Live Authentication + Audit Feature

Live Proctoring Feature

  • It entails a live ID authentication and a 360᷾-degree sweep of the room and the desktop by a live proctor.
  • Once the verification is done, the proctor will leave, and the complete test will be recorded.
  • Once the assessment is complete, a proctor and an auditor will review the following:
    • Authentication process
    • Recording of the proctoring session
  • The live proctor monitors the entire session, from authenticating the candidate to test completion.
  • The live proctor also:
    • Conducts the post-test audit
    • Addresses suspicious behavior
    • Responds to technical questions
    • Offers interactive on-screen support to the candidate in real time


D. What Are the Important System Features Needed for Live Supervision?

Some of the 'must-have' system features of live proctoring include:

  • Real-time monitoring: The proctor should be able to monitor multiple candidates simultaneously, making the test-taking experience scalable.
  • Video calling: Proctors and candidates should be able to communicate using video, audio, and chat functionalities.
  • Scoring: Proctors should be able to access credibility scoring reports and get notifications of suspicious behavior to reduce the effort in assessing candidates.
  • Oral test: The proctor can give real-time tasks and observe how candidates respond on video calls.
  • Mobile camera: The tool must allow proctors to monitor the candidate's environment by using a mobile device. It should allow for a 360° view of the room and desktop.
  • No installation, no hassle: There's no need to install any extension or new software; the system should run in a browser.

E. Pros & Cons of Live Human Proctoring

Pros of Live Proctoring

Cons of Live Proctoring

  • It happens in real time and offers the same benefits as proctoring an in-person test



  • The live proctor's attention may be divided since they review multiple candidates
  • They may also miss an incident with a particular candidate while keeping an eye on another
  • Candidates can get help from proctors in real time
  • Live proctors can intervene in real time if  an incident of potential cheating arises and address suspicious activity instantly
  • Aligning the candidate and proctor's schedules can be tricky




  • Proctors can engage in test monitoring with greater confidence while protecting the integrity of the test

  • Live proctoring can increase candidate anxiety and affect their performance and distract them from the test 
  • Test sessions are recorded, making it easy for recruiters to re-watch the session and hire the right talent with informed decision-making



Video Proctoring Type 2: Record and Review Proctoring

A. What is Record and Review Proctoring?

Record and review proctoring is a type of online proctoring. Here are its defining characteristics:

  • No proctor watches the candidate while the assessment is in progress.
  • This proctoring style uses high-quality recording equipment to:
    • Capture the video and audio of the test
    • Allow the hiring manager to review the assessment at a later time (which could be weeks, months, or a year later)
    • Understand whether cheating occurred or not, whether assessment questions were stolen, and whether the test was taken securely

B. What the Record and Review Proctoring Process Includes

Generally speaking, a standard record and review proctoring process includes the following:

  • Step-by-step guidance via an automated process, where the candidate's identity is verified and authenticated before initiating the assessment
  • Easy-to-use chat feature for candidates to get assistance before or during an assessment
  • Monitoring and flagging suspicious activity, which can be assessed and reviewed later
  • Recorded sessions in entirety for proctors to review as soon as the assessment is complete

C. Record and Review Proctoring: Top 5 Features

A robust record and review proctoring solution must deliver the following useful features:

1: The ability to:

  • Authenticate candidate identity with face and voice matching
  • Access a 'confidence score'
  • Use two-factor authentication to prevent cheating

2: The ability to automatically:

  • Identify event flags and log violations
  • Filter and categorize the log list for low, medium, and high-risk flags
  • Validate flags raised by the AI-powered tool
  • Review candidate video and log violations using high-frequency screenshots, video playback, and sound waveform observations

3: Access to a pool of quality proctors who are trained to ensure test integrity, security, and privacy

4: One-click access to an 'integrity score' report for every candidate, available within 24 hours of the assessment. This report must:

  • Indicate the level of potential malpractice
  • Include an end-to-end recording with time stamps and low, mid, and high-risk event logs

5: The ability to audit stored recordings and build on compliance best-practices


D. Pros and Cons of Record and Review Proctoring:

Pros of Record and Review Proctoring

Cons of AI Proctoring

  • Deters cheating as candidates are aware of their actions being 'watched' and recorded

  • Can lead to 'delayed' action and decision-making as the time period taken to complete the assessment and zero in on a candidate can be lengthy
  • Offers the ability to publicize:
    • The security measures in place for the assessment
    • Incidents of cheaters being caught and the consequences the cheaters have to face
  • Possibility of never reviewing the assessment, even at a later date, due to fear of time-consumption by the reviewer, lack of available reviewers, and so on

  • Allows seasoned proctors to catch instances of cheating and violation of rules, such as looking up answers on the web, asking for outside help, etc.
  • Proctoring can be ineffective, and security threats such as the use of hidden cameras, memorizing test content, etc., can go undetected, even with well-trained proctors
  • Provides additional time to review the assessment thoroughly, owing to the recording feature


E. How to Improve Security of Proctored Online Tests Using Record and Review Proctoring?

Here are 3 expert-approved tips on how to bolster the security of proctored online assessments using record and review proctoring:

Tip #1: Outsource a Record and Review Proctoring Audit Service

Outsourcing the audit service:

  • Ensures assessments are always reviewed in a timely manner
  • Allows trained proctors to review the assessment, detect instances of cheating, and look out for suspicious behavior during the assessment

Tip #2: Detect Cheating Using Data Forensics

Recruiters must opt for a tool that provides additional test security detection systems, such as monitoring the web for stolen assessment content and running data forensics analyses to detect cheating.

Tip #3: Create a Deterrence Communication Plan

To discourage candidates from cheating, inform candidates about the consequences of cheating and craft impactful messages such as:

  • Communicating about how the organization can effectively detect and prevent fraud
  • Demonstrating to candidates how the chances of getting caught are high
  • Establishing fear in the mind of the candidate about getting caught


Video Proctoring Type 3: Automated AI Proctoring

A. What is Automated AI Proctoring?

Automated proctoring or AI-based proctoring makes use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to:

  • Flag, register, and predict suspicious candidate behavior and actions during online assessments
  • Flag the common cheating instances such as distracted eye movements, detection of multiple devices, detection of another person’s presence, partial visibility of the candidate, and so on
  • Assess a candidate's behavior, environment, and movement—much like a human proctor
  • Record and review audit data of the proctored session
  • Gain flexibility as well as peace of mind for proctors and candidates

An auto proctoring tool is designed by expert developers who use advanced algorithms to deliver a seamless assessment-taking experience.

The solution uses powerful features such as screen-sharing and audio-video feeds of every candidate to prevent cheating and violating other rules. 

B. How Auto Proctoring Works

Automated proctoring is basically a type of remote assessment monitoring system. It leverages advanced AI to deliver a secure and reliable proctoring experience.

Benefit for Candidates

  • They can schedule the test at their own convenience and at a time that works for them.

Benefit for Proctors

  • Proctors do not have to sit through the test; they can re-watch the test as the session is recorded.
  • The system will flag suspicious behavior and present the findings of each candidate in a report.

Benefit for Companies

  • It helps organizations streamline, centralize, and scale assessment tests in a secure and reliable manner.
  • Once the test begins, the automated proctoring system will record the candidate’s screen using webcam and microphone features. This ensures assessment integrity. 

C. Types of Actions That Can Get Flagged During an Auto Proctoring Session

An automated proctoring solution can flag the following types of actions:

  • Ensuring that the right candidate is taking the assessment with ID verification
  • Checking to see if the candidate is maintaining eye contact with the screen (as opposed to looking elsewhere)
  • Capturing audio using a connected microphone to prevent cheating where the candidate is talking to someone else
  • Using the webcam feed to look for additional people in the room
  • Checking to see if the candidate is visiting other web pages during the test
  • Tracking the candidate's movement and ensuring they are seated in their seat at all times

Once the assessment is complete, the proctor will be alerted of anomalies detected by the automated proctoring solution. The proctor can then:

  • Review the flagged areas
  • See if any suspicious signs were detected
  • Determine the next steps to take

D. How Auto AI Proctoring Can Be Used by Organizations

Automated proctoring offers a wide range of benefits for organizations, such as:

  • Easy execution of assessments as the advanced AI and algorithms can take over the 'grunt work' and conduct the assessment for managers
  • Making assessments safer, more cost-effective, less stressful, and more efficient
  • Easing the burden of HR teams to onboard new hires quickly, maximize the training efficiency, and optimize the recruitment process

E. Pros and Cons of AI Proctoring Software

Pros of AI Proctoring
Cons of AI Proctoring
  • Reduces chances of human error and missed opportunities for suspecting suspicious behavior

  • The lack of a human proctor means candidates cannot reach out for any queries or questions; in some cases, a chatbot may not be able to provide the right answers
  • Allows for easy, on-demand scheduling of assessments that candidates can undertake anytime, anywhere
  • Leads to a delay in review as the test reviewing can only be done once the recording is finished and the assessment is complete
  • Allows proctors to easily review the tests by flagging violations within each candidate's report and providing the playback feature, which helps them re-watch the test recording
  • Chances of false reporting for cheating can increase as the software might 'misread' the candidate's actions
  • Helps organizations to scale their assessment process and test multiple candidates at a time
  • The review process can be lengthy and effort-intensive, creating frustration within the proctor and leading to poor-quality scoring



Want to maintain assessment integrity? Try iMocha's detailed proctoring analytics reports of a candidate during remote hiring.



Live vs. Record and Review vs. Auto Proctoring: Key Differences

Let's summarize the key differences between live proctoring, record and review proctoring, and auto proctoring:

Live Proctoring
Record and Review Proctoring
Online Auto Proctoring

Is a real-time proctoring system where a human proctor is involved

  • Involves recording the video of the candidate during the assessment





  • An advanced version of proctoring where the human is not present for the entire duration of the assessment 
  • The human proctor is only needed for review
Ideal for coding assessments
  • Includes post-proctoring tasks such as:
    • Tracking eye movements
    • Engaging in face and object detection
    • Doing log analysis
  • Leverages algorithms and technologies to identify fraud and cheating




A human proctor can:

  • Track eye movements
  • Engage in face and voice verification
  • Flag instances of cheating
  • Involving a human proctor is possible to review the proctored session, but it is a time-consuming and costly affair



  • Is a cost-effective proctoring solution





  • Mandates that the proctor be competent in using technological tools
  • Is a complicated tool to design



3 Stages of Candidate Integrity Validation During the Hiring Process

Recruiters wanting to be more confident with their hiring decisions must focus on validating candidate integrity across all three stages of the hiring process. 

Here are some of the important checks to undertake:

  • Ensure candidate (and talent) integrity
  • Reduce candidate fraud
  • Accelerate the hiring process
  • Improve candidate quality

Here are the checks to keep a note of to auto-verify the integrity of highly-skilled candidates and prevent fraud:

Stage 1: Pre-Test/Interview

  • Capturing location + IP​
  • Verifying the profile picture​
  • Cross-checking photo ID  ​
  • Conducting an internet speed test​
  • Granting the necessary camera permissions​
  • Offering screen share permission
  • Conducting a microphone/speaker-test​
  • Tracking multiple attempts​

Here are the checks to undertake for monitoring and flagging suspicious behavior:

Stage 2: During the Test/Interview

  • Accessing device tracking alerts such as internet browsing, opening third-party apps, switching tabs, copy-pasting, screen sharing, and more
  • Tracking 'external' alerts such as constantly looking away, face not being detected by the tool, presence of multiple faces, and so on
  • Limiting assessment exits​
  • Blocking multiple attempts​
  • Engaging in multi-device proctoring​
  • Detecting instances of visual impersonation​
  • Tracking lip syncing
  • Identifying deep fakes in video
  • Identifying the human voice for verification

Here are the checks to conduct once the assessment is complete:

Stage 3: After the Test/Interview

  • Accessing each candidate's cheating probability score​
  • Analyzing the audit trail of candidate's activities​​
  • Checking for candidate duplication
  • Analyzing the video for suspicious activities​​
  • Checking for code plagiarism ​​
  • Checking name and email for duplicates​​
  • Identifying mobile phone usage​
  • Checking audio and detecting multiple voices​

The learning: By validating the candidate across all three stages of the hiring process and conducting the required checks, recruiters can hire job-fit and skilled talent without any doubts.


Useful Guidelines for Video and Live Online Proctoring for Candidates

Looking for a guideline template to use for a video webcam-based live online proctoring assessment? Use the following example to give you a head-start and make changes as needed:

Guidelines for Getting Started:

The proctor will need to follow these steps:

  • Give permission to the candidate to take the proctored test.
  • Advice the candidate to connect in advance to make an appointment for the assessment, and provide them with the available testing times and location

The candidate, on the other hand, must:

  • Make an appointment for the assessment
  • Have a webcam, a microphone, and a Picture ID available to show

Guidelines for Taking the Test:

Step 1: The proctor connects with the candidate using a webcam. The candidate must share their screen with the proctor.

Step 2: The candidate must show a valid picture ID to the proctor via webcam.

Step 3: The candidate must follow the instructions of the proctor during the assessment, such as:

  • Putting away all materials not to be used during the assessment
  • Getting rid of all electronic devices from the room
  • Shut off secondary computers, screens, tablets, etc.

Step 4: The candidate must be prepared for the proctor, who will sweep the room completely using the webcam before and during the test to flag any suspicious activity.

Step 5: The candidate must log in and take the test.

Step 6: Once the assessment is complete, the candidate will submit it, and the proctor will disconnect.


Also Read:



Time and costs per hire increasing for each role? Learn how iMocha has helped reduce them by 50% for Fujitsu, Capgemini, and a number of other global organizations!




Q. What is webcam/camera proctoring?

Camera proctoring uses a webcam to take photos and a video feed of an online assessment. The webcam helps:

  • Identify the candidate taking the online test
  • Verify the user’s identity easily and quickly to prevent impersonation
  • Provide a safe and effective method to verify candidate identity without creating privacy issues

Q. Can live proctoring be recorded?

Yes. Even with live proctoring, hiring managers can record the session and view it later on.

Q. What are the technical requirements needed for video proctoring for candidates?

To engage in video proctoring, candidates must have access to the following:

  • A desktop PC/laptop with an operational webcam and a microphone
  • High-speed internet connection (at least 512 kbps speed or more)
  • The latest version of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or other standard browsers

Q. Can proctors communicate with candidates during a live proctoring assessment?

Yes. Proctors can communicate with candidates during a live proctoring assessment. They can:

  • Intervene in real-time
  • Talk to candidates using chat, audio, and video functionalities
  • Rate candidates or provide real-time tasks
  • Terminate sessions manually

Q. What happens if a security breach occurs during record and review proctoring?

In the off chance a security breach occurs during record and review proctoring, the testing tool can:

  • Conduct an investigation
  • Cancel the test score
  • Initiate other sanctions
  • Take no action at all

Given that the reviews occur in a delayed manner, the decision to terminate the test can take too long, paving the way for inefficiency.

Kartik Mishra
Kartik Mishra
I am an engineer and ex-ad film writer/director that now leverages his field experience in helping organizations hire better and faster. Having worked closely with approx. 500 organizations in the past half-a-decade, I understand what it takes for an organization to succeed and grow in today's market, and try to share my inputs regarding the same.
Find me on:

Topics: Remote Hiring

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